In 1996 the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a policy brief entitled “Adolescent Assault Victim Needs: A Review of Issues and a Model Protocol“
. The first formal hospital programs designed to address the needs of adolescent victims of assaultive violence were established in Oakland, California in 1994 (Caught in the Crossfire) and in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1996 (Project Ujima). As programs emerged in other parts of the country emerged, the National Network of Hospital-Based Violence Intervention Programs (NNHVIP) was established in 2009 coordinate the work of these programs. At minimum, the programs provide assessment and consultation services while the client is still at the hospital (or very shortly thereafter) and at least 4 months of post-release case management services. These programs are evolving and expanding. So far, the outcome research suggests promising outcomes, however, this research is limited by small sample sizes, shorter-than-needed follow-up periods, and the typical obstacles that accompany early efforts to evaluate complex human service programs. The three common goals of these programs are: prevent further victimization, prevent retaliatory violence or subsequent violence perpetration, and to engage the client in productive and rewarding activities, including education and work. Michael presented a summary of the extant outcome research on these types of programs at the 2012 NNHVIP Annual Meeting titled Outcomes for Hospital Based Violence Intervention Programs
. This presentation will be converted to a publication in a peer-reviewed medical journal in 2013.