In 1979 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) first recognized Violence as a preventable public health concern. Four years later the CDC established a Violence Epidemiology Branch. In 1996 the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a Model Protocol and Procedures for meeting the needs as assault-injured youth treated at hospital emergency departments and trauma centers. For the first time, the Academy, in effect, formally recognized the chronic nature of violence and the futility of simply treating and releasing victims of violence, a phenomenon that was documented and elaborated in 1991 in Deborah Prothrow-Stith's groundbreaking book "Deadly Consequences." In 1995 hospitals in Oakland California and Milwaukee Wisconsin opened the first formal hospital-based violence intervention programs in the country. There are at present more than 25 such programs in the United States as well as programs in Canada and Great Britain. Under the leadership of Marla Becker, the National Network of Hospital-Based Violence Intervention was born in 2009, providing guidance, guidelines, and training to emerging programs and peer support and collaboration among its member programs (NNHVIP.org). Five randomized control trials have been conducted thus far, demonstrating the the effectiveness of these programs in reduce retaliatory violence and victimization recurrence as well as improving overall well-being. Michael now serves as a National Adviser to the Network, has presented papers at the last three annual conferences, and has contributed to writing a significant paper on the nature of such programs.
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